Virginia Graeme Baker, 7, the granddaughter of
former Secretary of State James Baker, becomes trapped on a spa
drain and drowns.
A bill proposing the passage of a national pool and spa safety law
named after Baker is reintroduced in the U.S. Congress after
failing the year before.
The drain-cover standard, ASME/ANSI A112.19.8, is revised for the
first time since its initial publication in 1987.
Abigail Taylor, 6, suffers an evisceration in a country club wading
pool, generating national publicity and garnering additional
support for the safety bill. The tragic incident leads to the
addition of commercial-pool requirements.
Zachary Cohn, 6, drowns after his arm becomes stuck in a drain,
causing representatives from his home state of Connecticut to
sponsor the bill.
The Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety Act is signed by
President George W. Bush. The law requires that all commercial-pool
drain covers be replaced within 12 months.
Pool and spa professionals and their commercial clients scramble to
meet the deadline for compliance with the VGB Act, set for Dec.
Testing lab NSF International files a complaint with ANSI, claiming
that some third-party testing labs were interpreting protocol
outlined in the drain-cover standard too liberally.
ABC breaks a story that reveals retesting of certain covers is
showing dangerous discrepancies between laboratories.
Senator Dick Durbin (D-Ill.) publicly demands that action be taken
to ensure drain-cover safety.
The Consumer Product Safety Commission announces it will conduct
its own investigation into drain-cover testing.
CPSC conducts a public meeting with the pool and spa industry,
testing labs and safety advocates regarding variances in test
The CPSC announces a recall potentially affecting one million drain
ASME/ANSI A112.19.8 is replaced by APSP-16 as the drain-cover
standard named in the Virginia Graeme Baker Pool and Spa Safety